By Noenoe K. Silva
Read Online or Download Aloha Betrayed: Native Hawaiian Resistance to American Colonialism (American Encounters/Global Interactions) PDF
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Additional resources for Aloha Betrayed: Native Hawaiian Resistance to American Colonialism (American Encounters/Global Interactions)
Cook’s attitude of superiority, evident in his expectation that the ali¿i would be subjugated to his authority, is clear in all the various accounts. Equally clear is the refusal of the K¯anaka Hawai¿i to be subjugated. Cook was not the only person killed during the visit of his ship to the islands. Ralph Kuykendall’s synthesis of the events does not dilute 22 Aloha Betrayed the violence perpetrated by the British visitors: ‘‘While the king was hesitating, news came that a chief crossing the bay in a canoe had been killed by a shot from one of the foreign boats.
The legacy of kauikeaouli From his childhood as the young m¯o¿¯ı Kamehameha III until his death in 1854, Kauikeaouli led Hawai¿i through the multiple challenges to his nation’s sovereignty and to his people’s dignity. With his council of ali¿i nui, which included women, along with his haole advisers, he transformed Hawai¿i into a nation-state recognized by the would-be colonizing nations, and in doing so he preserved his nation’s independence. The Kingdom of Hawai¿i adopted what it needed from the European and American systems, while preserving as much as possible its own traditions.
Because there are so many stories told in so many di√erent ways, there is no reason to present here a new history of the arrival and early activities of the missionaries; instead I will summarize the stories, highlighting some of the struggles over how pono was to be deﬁned. I will also brieﬂy review what is often described as the missionaries’ greatest accomplishment: the introduction of literacy and the establishment of the print media in Hawai¿i nei. S. missionaries to come to Hawai¿i. Along ¿Op¯ ¯ ukaha¿ia and other Kanaka with an even younger man named Hopu, ¿Op¯ youths signed on as hands on the whaling and merchant ships that passed ¯ ukaha¿ia learned English, ﬁrst aboard a ship through Hawai¿i nei.