By Alexander of Aphrodisias, R.W. Sharples

Alexander of Aphrodisias - the top historical commentator on Aristotle - deals interpretations to do with ethical advantage, the standards for judging activities voluntary, etc. Translation of textual content with statement and notes

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Example text

But it was found that it was neither all a good nor all an evil, and there was also some that was indifferent. So will that [pleasure] which is good be opposite to 5 distress in the way that a good is opposite to an evil, and [will pleasure] which is bad [be opposite to distress] in the way that an evil [is opposite to] an evil? [Ill] But if so, what should one say about the [pleasure] that is indifferent? It supervened on activities that were indifferent; and if* this is opposite to distress, not only good and evil but also what is indifferent will be opposed to evil, which does not seem right.

80 Even for those who suppose that all distress is an evil, it does not necessarily follow either that all pleasure is a good or that it is all an evil, [even] accepting that pleasure is opposed to distress. For in the case of those pleasures where there are certain excesses, there are some pleasures that are to be chosen and some that are to be avoided. The moderate81 ones are to be chosen, but those corresponding to the 25 excesses are base. And the pleasures that have this [characteristic]82 are the bodily ones.

For the final cause and that 'for the sake of which' is external in the case of all actions, if everyone who acts does what he does for the sake of something which is outside himself. Moreover, a final cause will not be present 30 in the case of those who do something or have something done to them under compulsion. For the person who is compelled by someone does not have some end set before himself for the sake of which he is compelled by the one who compels him. The person who compels someone and acts* does have some end set before him, and it is on account of this that he the one whom he does.

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