By Jochen Kämpf
This e-book introduces the reader to complex tools utilized in the computer-based modelling of fluid methods. This contains nonhydrostatic methods akin to breaking inner waves and density-driven convection, however the version code can also be used to simulate an El-Niño occasion! The booklet includes 25 sensible routines, utilizing freely to be had Open-Source software program suites, that are established by means of the medical neighborhood. during this e-book, the paintings of hydrodynamic modelling is made to be had and obvious to a much wider readership. an enticing byproduct of the booklet is that effects are animations instead of nonetheless photographs. version codes and animation scripts for all routines are provided on an internet site. The reader can undertake version codes for personal autonomous studies
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Extra info for Advanced Ocean Modelling: Using Open-Source Software
11 Same as Fig. 1 The Governing Equations Density effects can be included in the vertical ocean-slice model by adding (a) an advection-diffusion equation for density and (b) the reduced-gravity force in the vertical momentum equation. 37) 36 3 Basics of Nonhydrostatic Modelling Note that, for convenience, the author has also included the nonlinear terms in the momentum equations. By splitting pressure into parts according to Eq. 39) with p = 0 at the sea surface. This ignores effects due to atmospheric pressure variations, which usually can be neglected.
7 The Rigid-Lid Approximation Inclusion of a free sea surface requires the choice of fairly small time steps to satisfy the CFL criterion associated with propagation of surface gravity waves (Eq. 35). Longer time steps are possible under the assumption that vertical velocity vanishes at the sea surface; that is, ws = 0. This assumption can be called rigid-lid approximation for nonhydrostatic models. It eliminates surface gravity waves and is easily implemented in the code by setting the vertical velocity at the surface to zero via the logical wet/dry pointer array.
Pressure fluctuations decrease markedly with depth and vanish near the sea floor. 7 gives the erroneous impression we are dealing with a multi-layer model. 5 Exercise 3: Short Surface Gravity Waves 33 Fig. 7 Exercise 3. Horizontal distribution of dynamic pressure (contours), expressed by equivalent sea-level elevations (q/(ρo g)), for the upper 20 levels of the water column after 100 secs of simulation. Elevations are magnified by a factor of 5. The top line shows the sea surface Fig. 8 Exercise 3.