By David Nutt & Liam J. Nestor & Liam Nestor
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Additional resources for Addiction
The use of alcohol, for example, to reduce performance anxiety or social anxiety disorder is a form of self-medicating. Social anxiety disorder is a very common disorder and is the most common diagnosable disorder in alcoholism—a quarter of young male alcoholics suffer from this disorder. Other populations find that different drugs can help with their underlying condition. g. amphetamine) can be helpful. This population often report, following the self-administration of stimulants, that they become more calm, focussed, and less distracted.
E. positive prediction error). A fully predicted reward elicits no response. e. negative prediction error). Dopamine neurons in the VS respond to reward only to the extent to which it differs from the prediction. Therefore, dopamine neurons in the VS are activated only when the current reward is better than the previous reward. Much evidence for the role of dopamine-dependent neural substrates in learning and memory comes from findings in associative learning. This is the process by which an 59 association between two stimuli (or a stimulus and behaviour) is learned.
The DLPFC receives dopamine projections from the midbrain VTA via the mesocortical pathway. e. slow) signalling through the D1R. The anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) is a midline region of the brain located around the anterior portion of the corpus callosum. There is strong evidence that the ACG consists of two major subdivisions which have distinct functions. These consist of the dorsal-cognitive and rostral-ventral affective divisions. Various functions have been ascribed to the dorsal-cognitive division.