By Philip K. Hitti (auth.)

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Thus" situate at the entry of the sea, [this] merchant of the people for many isles" (Ezek. 27: 3) sat like a pedlar at a city gate, spreading out its wares. In its case, as in that of Aradus, the insular part became more than a storehouse for merchandise or a place of retreat in face of danger, it became the city itself. Herodotus, who visited the place in the fifth century, was greatly impressed by the temple of its patron god 26 Independence, Trade and Colonization Melkarth (whom he called Herakles), with its "two pillars, one of refined gold and one of emerald, a green pillar that shone in the night-time".

IE 590 PHO ENICIAN COLONIES ----, LI B Y A Independence, Trade and Colonization Arabs, cannot be ascertained. That they reached Cornwall (south-western England) in quest of tin lacks verification. Only one late inscription in Phoenician characters, dating from the first century of the Roman occupation, has been unearthed in Britain. Greek and Roman coins found in the Azores might have been carried there by Carthaginians, since neither Greeks nor Romans seem to have had knowledge of those remote islands.

Wealthy Lebanese and Roman residents began to establish summer resorts in mountainous areas up to this time exclusively the domain of hunters, shepherds, woodcutters and brigands. Worshippers increasingly chose hilltops for shrines. Temple ruins, half-buried columns, Latin and Greek inscriptions, sarcophagi have been found in such high and widely scattered villages as Shimlan, Qartabah, Tannurin and Ihdin. A Latin inscription in Niha marks the burial place of a Roman official from Beirut. This inland expansion was reflected in the political set-up of the second Christian century when the districtof'Phoenice was extended to the area east of the mountain.

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