By Marcel Nelson

Offering a serious account of the cave in of the FTAA negotiations and adjustments to energy relatives within the Americas, this e-book argues that the cave in used to be rooted in a "crisis of authority" brought on by way of transforming into competition within the Americas to US management and the neo-liberal reforms that have been promoted by means of Washington because the Eighties.

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Extra info for A History of the FTAA: From Hegemony to Fragmentation in the Americas

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13 Consequently, he argues that popular social forces organize counterhegemonic order at the national level to challenge the present order. The emphasis on the organization of counterhegemonic movements within national social formations as the most effective strategy in challenging the world order is quite prescient. However, Cox’s analysis stops short, as it does not proceed to examine how such successful mobilizations affect national states and how they may, in turn, impact international institutions.

As with political society at the level of the national social formation, Cox argues that international institutions are conceptualized as being abstracted or separate from particular national states and the civil societies in which they are rooted. 17 In fact, global governance structures often try to portray themselves as instances of universality, striving to present themselves either as neutral arbiters of interstate conflict—for example, the WTO dispute settlement mechanism—or as neutral purveyors of what organizations such as the IMF would claim to be “international public goods” to legitimize their policies.

Introduction 17 The Crisis of Authority Shaped the Evolution of the FTAA Negotiations The fourth argument is that the crises of authority, rooted in the social formations of the Americas, came to have repercussions within the institutional structure of the FTAA negotiations. Robert Cox’s adaptation of Gramsci’s work focuses on, among many things, the role played by international institutions in disseminating hegemony on behalf of a hegemonic state. Hegemony, according to Gramsci, within national social formations and through the institutions of civil and political society, universalizes the interests of a particular class.

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