By M. C. Ricklefs

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Djajadiningrat believed that Salahuddin was deposed by his brother Alauddin Riayat Syah al-Kahar before the attack on Malacca, while Lombard believes that it was Salahuddin who carried out this attack and that he was only deposed by his brother c. 1539. Sultan Alauddin Riayat Syah al-Kahar (r. c. 1537/9-71) was one of Aceh's greatest warriors. He is believed to have attacked the Batak people to the south of Aceh in 1539 when the Batak ruler refused to embrace Islam. ) Then he attacked Aru but was expelled by a Johor force, and Johor held Aru for twenty-four years thereafter.

In 1614 he defeated a Portuguese fleet at Bintan; in 1617 he took Pahang and carried off its Sultan Ahmad Syah; in 1620 Kedah was conquered; in 1623 he again sacked the Johor capital; in 1624/5 he took Nias. But in 1629 the expansionist campaigns of Iskandar Muda were brought to a halt by the Portuguese. It will be seen below that Java's greatest empire-builder, Sultan Agung, also received a setback at European hands at the same time. Iskandar Muda sent an expedition of several hundred ships against Malacca in 1629, and it was entirely devastated.

In early 1513 its king, Yunus, led an attacking force said to contain one hundred ships and 5000 men from Jepara and Palembang against Portuguese Malacca, but he was defeated. Between c. 1518 and 1521, he apparently ruled as king over Demak. Jepara's influence was, however, greatest in the latter part of the sixteenth century when it was ruled by a queen called Ratu Kalinyamat. In 15 51 Jepara aided J ohor in its unsuccessful 36 A HISTORY OF MODERN INDONESIA attack on Malacca, and in 1574 Jepara again besieged Malacca for three months.

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