By Barbara A. West

Taking a mostly chronological technique, a quick background of Australia appears at social, cultural, fiscal, and political developments within the country's lengthy heritage, laying off gentle on its distinctive and complicated identification. starting with the peopling of the continent approximately 60,000 years in the past, the quantity examines the early background and tradition of the Aboriginals. It maintains with the 1st documented sighting of the landmass by way of a eu within the seventeenth century, by means of a dialogue of the colonial interval within the 18th and nineteenth centuries. From the Federation of 1901 to the Liberal govt of John Howard (1998 to 2007) and the exertions executive of John Rudd (2007 present), this new publication explores Australia's dating to the British Crown, nationwide safety and schooling coverage, the function of recreation and environmental concerns, Aboriginal rights, women's historical past, and homosexual rights.

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Phillip was so taken with the civilization and striking behavior of the Indigenous people that he gave the place-name Manly to their home 44 European Exploration and Early Settlement by the cove. At the same time, the two Aboriginal men with whom Phillip had any kind of relationship, Bennelong and Arabanoo, were both kidnapped by white soldiers and presented to him to serve as potential translators and intermediaries between their people and the governor. Arabanoo quickly succumbed to smallpox and died while being held captive, but Bennelong survived the epidemic and went on to learn English and even travel back to England with Phillip when Portrait of Bennelong, circa 1795 (ink on card) by Lt.

The hoes, shovels, and axes with which the convicts tried to break the dry, dusty earth and fell the heavy eucalyptus 42 European Exploration and Early Settlement trees were woefully inadequate to the task. Seeds carried from the Dutch colony at the Cape of Good Hope were so barren that the new colonists began to believe the Dutch had purposefully sold them shoddy goods. As a result, rationing and protecting limited food stores became a top priority for Phillip throughout his four-year tenure as the colony’s governor.

Female convicts who received an offer of marriage were usually freed in order to take up that offer, and, after 1816, male convicts could apply to have their wives and families transported to New South Wales at no cost. If the husband was not eligible for his ticket of leave, parole, or freedom, he was “given” to his wife to serve out the end of his sentence (Hirst 2005, 109). These marriages, the authorities believed, would improve both the morality and the industriousness of the colony’s population.

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