By National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Environment and Resources Commission on Geosciences, Ocean Studies Board

This e-book describes the improvement of ocean sciences over the last 50 years, highlighting the contributions of the nationwide technology starting place (NSF) to the field's development. a number of the people who participated within the fascinating discoveries in organic oceanography, chemical oceanography, actual oceanography, and marine geology and geophysics describe within the ebook how the discoveries have been made attainable by way of combos of insightful members, new know-how, and now and again, serendipity.

as well as describing the development of ocean technological know-how, the booklet examines the institutional constructions and know-how that made the advances attainable and provides visions of the field's destiny. This ebook is the first-ever documentation of the heritage of NSF’s department of Ocean Sciences, how the constitution of the department advanced to its current shape, and the people who were accountable for ocean sciences at NSF as “rotators†and occupation employees over the last 50 years.

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Extra resources for 50 Years of Ocean Discovery: National Science Foundation 1950-2000

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The daily costs for commercial vessels of this class were prohibitively high, and planners then turned to the famous Glomar Explorer, the ship that the Central Intelligence Agency had commissioned to recover the coding device from a Soviet submarine that sank in deep water northwest of the Hawaiian Islands. This recovery effort, thinly disguised as a manganese nodule hunt, in an area where nodules were not very abundant and compositionally of little commercial interest, was successful and the special ship, with its derrick, drawworks with immense lifting power, dynamic positioning, and very large spaces available for laboratories, was in mothballs near San Francisco.

A heady vision! At NSF, awareness was growing that coring of sediments was probably better done from a ship other than the Mohole ship. A sediment-coring ship would need be on station only for days or weeks, while the Mohole ship would be on station for years. The two programs were now being viewed as independent, and so NSF, in 1963, proposed to Congress an Ocean Sediment Coring Program, distinct from the Mohole Project. Funds were provided for the new program in fiscal year 1965. The trigger for realizing an oceanic drilling project was the acquisition of a practical dynamic positioning system.

Near the coast of Puerto Rico, as a test of drilling tools. NSF learned the hazards of attempting management by NSF rather than by contractors with roots in the academic community concerned directly with the scientific goals of the project. In hindsight, given what we know now from three decades of drilling experience in crustal rocks, it is highly unlikely that drilling at the candidate Moho site near Oahu would have penetrated more than a small fraction of the thickness of the oceanic crust.

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